Otrzymano: Czerwiec 06, 2023
Zaakceptowano: Lipiec 26, 2023
Opublikowano online: 2023-09-25
Medicine and veterinary,
Pollution and environment,
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, also through the use of veterinary drugs, is a significant environmental health problem. Pharmaceuticals are constantly discharged with wastewater into the environment. As biologically active substances designed to act in low concentrations, they are used in medicine and veterinary medicine. The main sources of their occurrence in the environment include their production, medicinal use, improper disposal and excretion by both humans and animals. Due to their tendency to bioaccumulate, they pose a threat to all levels of trophic chains in the environment. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this paper is to present issues related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment in the context of environmental health and environmental education. Research methods: Studies, including epidemiological ones, on the risk of adverse health effects associated with the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment were reviewed. The literature review covering the years 2013-2022 was conducted by searching PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, and included studies focusing on the identification of pharmaceuticals and possible adverse health effects. Results: The presence of pharmaceuticals in water poses real risks, including those related to hormonal imbalance in human and animal bodies, or the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Conclusions: The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is a global problem. Therefore, there is a need to develop wastewater treatment technologies to effectively eliminate these compounds from water and wastewater. It is also necessary take educational measures.
Chmielewski, J., Bąk-Badowska, J., Dietrich, G.,J., Wójtowicz, B., Żeber-Dzikowska, I., Kordyzon, M., Król, H., Littva, V. and Gworek, B. (2023) 'Presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment in water - an underestimated threat to environmental health and a challenge for education', Journal of Elementology, 28(3), 687-703, available: http://dx.doi.org/10.5601/jelem.2023.28.3.2422
pharmaceuticals, aquatic environment, ecotoxicology, environmental hazards, health