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Journal Title Abbrev.
J. Elem.
ISSN – 1644-2296
DOI: 10.5601

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Importance of iodine fortification in food production: human health and technology

Wydanie: 1/2023

Otrzymano: Październik 10, 2022

Zaakceptowano: Styczeń 29, 2023

Opublikowano online: 2023-02-27


Adamczak M., Wachowska M.

Kategorie: Food science, Review paper

DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2022.27.4.2342


Iodine (I) is an essential element in the human diet, and the demand for it is determined by age, sex, and lifestyle. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, the daily intake of I should be 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. The application of new solutions in the fields of food technology, nanotechnology, encapsulation and biofortification supports the activities carried out to increase the concentration and bioavailability of I in food products. Widespread iodization of salt enabled a reduction in I deficiency in many countries. In view of changing consumer preferences and dietary guidelines, the current recommendations need to be carefully verified. The WHO also estimated the loss of iodine to be 20% from production to consumer and another 20% during cooking. A valuable, natural source of I might be raw materials and products of plant origin after applying biofortification. Multicomponent fortification of iodized salt (IS) is not easy, as the stability of the added components varies, and suitable techniques are required, e.g. encapsulation, extrusion or spray drying. The problem of iodine deficiency is still common and affects approximately two billion people, school-age children, and women during pregnancy and lactation. An inadequate supply of I results, e.g. in hypothyroidism and goiter, congenital fetal anomalies and stillbirths. Biofortified vegetables, characterized by high bioavailability and stability, can be a safe source of I for the human body and an alternative to inorganic I from IS. Problems associated with the supplementation of food products with I or IS are mainly related to its stability and possible effects on the organoleptic characteristics of products. The paper presents food products as a source of I and alternative methods of enriching foods with I. In overcoming the problem of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), the possibility of using IS was pointed out, but also the potential difficulties and limitations of using IS in food technology.  


Wachowska M., Adamczak M. 2023. Importance of iodine fortification in food production: human health and technology. J. Elem., 28(1): 199-222. DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2022.27.4.2342

Słowa kluczowe:

iodine, iodized salt, trace element, biofortification, food technology

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