Otrzymano: Marzec 27, 2022
Zaakceptowano: Sierpień 04, 2022
Opublikowano online: 2022-12-12
Pollution and environment,
The objective of the work is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the harmfulness of chemical agents contained in wastewater and sewage sludge to human health and the surrounding environment. Wastewater and sewage sludge are composed of various chemical substances. These include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals and pharmaceuticals. Inorganic gases, e.g. hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, are also emitted as a result of putrefaction processes occurring during wastewater treatment. Exposure to these diverse chemical agents poses a health risk due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects as well as their negative impact on endocrine functions. Because of the use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, they can be incorporated into the biological cycle, leading to the accumulation of pollutants in soils, vegetables and fruit as well as their transfer to surface water and groundwater. Not all chemical compounds are biodegradable in the environment, which contributes to their bioaccumulation and even biomagnification. The final recipient is man. While standards set for the content of specific pollutants in sewage sludge used for agricultural purposes are now stricter, they are not always complied with. Furthermore, new chemical compounds (e.g. pharmaceuticals) are identified in wastewater and their elimination with traditional wastewater treatment technologies is more difficult.
Wójtowicz B., Kordyzon M., Bąk-Badowska J., Gregorczyk M, Gworek B., Żeber-Dzikowska I. 2022. Chemicals in wastewater and sewage sludge - an underestimated health and environmental threat. J. Elem., 27(4): 847 - 859. DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2022.27.3.2283
chemical agents, wastewater, sewage sludge, health, environment, threat