Concentration of selected metals in butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) contaminated with anthracene and pyrene


Wydanie: 4 / 2011

Autorzy:

  • Krzebietke S.

Kategorie: Horticulture and forestry , Pollution and environment

DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2011.16.4.06

Abstrakt:

PAHs (polycyclic  aromatic  hydrocarbons)   are  widespread  in  the  natural environment. They  are  suspected  to  have  mutagenic,   carcinogenic  and teratogenic  effect  on  our  organisms.  Production   of wholesome  and  high quality   vegetables  does not  necessarily  involve selection  of adequate farmlands or substrates used  for  vegetable  growing.  Combustion processes are  a source  of PAHs in the  soil  and  air.  Excessive levels  of PAHs are accumulated when  the  balance  between  their   decomposition  in  soil  and supply  from  other sources  is disrupted.   The  objective  of the  present research  has  been to evaluate  the  effect  of anthracene and  pyrene  on the concentration  of selected trace  elements  in  butter  lettuce  (Lactuca sativa L.),  cultivar Vilmorin, grown  on substrates with  different  nutrient abundance. A  pot experiment  in  four replications was  carried  out twice  in  the  spring of 2007  and  2008.  The pots were  maintained in  a  greenhouse  at  the University of Warmia   and  Mazury   in Olsztyn.  Lettuce   was  grown  under the  minimum  (optimum)  and  triple   (II fertilization level) substrate  abundance  in  nutrients. In  the  second variant o the experiment, when  the nutrient   abundance  was  elevated,  nitrogen  was split   into two  doses: 2/3 of the  whole  rate were  added before planting  lettuce  seedlings, and 1/3 of the  rate  was  introduced  10  days afterwards. In  the  first   variant, when  the nutrient abundance  was  minimal, all  of the  nitrogen  was  added  in  a single dose.  Spraying  the  lettuce  plants   with   anthracene   (ANT), pyrene (PYR) or  their   mixture started   10  days  after  planting.   Foliar introduction  of the tested  PAHs continued  for  25  days  (in  the  amount  of 1.8 cm3  day1  at  a concentration  of 100  mg  dm-3)  until   the  vegetative season finished. At  the same  time,  an  identical   total amount  of the  PAHs was added to soil  as aqueous solution,  at  7-day intervals, according to the  same pattern.  Determinations  of the  concentrations   of heavy metals  (Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn,  Mn) was  performed  with  the ASA  method, having  first mineralised (HClO4+HCl+HNO3) the  plant  material which  had  been dried  at 60oC. The determinations were  compared with certified material (CTA-VTL-2).  Concentrations of the  trace  elements  in  butter  lettuce  were significantly varied  depending on the experimental factors. A more abundant substrate  si- gnificantly raised  the levels  of Cd,  Zn  and  Mn,  but  had  no effect on concentrations  of Cu, Ni  and  Cr. The  way  the  PAHs were  applied  did not have  any  influence  on modifications  in the  determined  levels  of the  metals.  Out  of the  two analysed  PAHs, anthracene, especially when  applied  to soil,  increased the  concentrations  of Zn and Cr in  lettuce  leaves.


Cytacja:

Krzebietke S. 2011. Concentration of selected metals in butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) contaminated with anthracene and  pyrene. 16/4: 567-576. DOI - http://dx.doi.org/10.5601/jelem.2011.16.4.06.

Słowa kluczowe:

anthracene, pyrene, Lactuca sativa L., heavy metals, substrate abundance

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