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Journal Title Abbrev.
J. Elem.
ISSN – 1644-2296
DOI: 10.5601

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Assessment of chemical composition and sanitary state of sand in selected sandboxes in Krakow

Issue: 1/2009

Recevied: No data

Accepted: Brak danych

Published: 2012-09-10


Jasiewicz Cz., Antonkiewicz J., Baran A.

Categories: Pollution and environment

DOI: jelem.2009.14.1.09


The aim of the research was to assess the chemical composition and sanitary state of sandboxes in Krakow. Samples of sand were collected from 42 sandboxes located on playgrounds in housing estates and municipal (urban) parks. In the samples the following were determined: reaction, organic matter and the content of total and soluble forms of several elements. The sand in the analyzed sandboxes had highest content of Zn, while the concentrations of other metal appeared in the following decreasing order: > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd (total forms) and Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd (soluble forms). The highest potential for ingesting heavy metals by humans due to accidental consumption of sand was found for Zn, followed by Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd. Children were at a higher risk of exposition to heavy metals than adults. On no occasion, the permissible limits of heavy metals for urbanized and built-up areas (group B) – set up by the regulation of the Minister for Environment on soil and earth quality – were exceeded. The same applies to the threshold levels of contaminants established for soils polluted by man-made sources. However, the sandboxes were found to be in poor sanitary conditions.


Jasiewicz Cz., Baran A., Antonkiewicz J. 2009. Assessment of chemical composition and sanitary state of sand in selected sandboxes in Krakow.  J. Elem. 14(1): 79-90.


heavy metals, sanitary condition, sandbox, children, environmental hazard

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