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Journal Title Abbrev.
J. Elem.
ISSN – 1644-2296
DOI: 10.5601

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The isotherm and kinetic studies of the biosorption of heavy metals by non-living cells of Chlorella vulgaris

Issue: 4/2016

Recevied: Nov 02, 2015

Accepted: Jul 21, 2016

Published: 2016-09-13


Abd El-Monem A., Abdel-Satar A., Ali M., Goher M., Hussian A., Napiórkowska-Krzebietke A.

Categories: Biology and microbiology, Pollution and environment

DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2016.21.1.1040


In general, the biosorption of heavy metals by various types of non-living organisms appears to be a very effective, low-cost and innovative method for their removal from aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of adsorption isotherms and kinetic models during the biosorbent activity of non-living Chlorella to the removal of Cd, Cu and Pb. Dead cells of Chlorella vulgaris were used to remove these heavy metals from aqueous solution in experimental conditions, i.e. under various condition of pH, biosorbent dosage and contact time. Afterwards, the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and the sorption kinetics (pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models, and intraparticle diffusion) were applied to the experimental data to check the effectiveness of the removal process. The removal of heavy metals on C. vulgaris following the order of Pb+2 > Cu+2 > Cd+2 was confirmed by the maximum biosorption capacities (qmax), the Langmuir constant (b), separation factor (RL) and Freundlich intensity parameter (1/n) values. The equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model and it suggested that such kinetics is the most effective. The present results confirmed highly efficient biosorbent activity of C. vulgaris in the removal of heavy metals, especially Cd, Cu and Pb, from aqueous solution. The environmentally friendly origin indicates that non-living cells of C. vulgaris could find many broad-scale, cost-effective and alternative applications.


Ali M.H., Hussian A.M., Abdel-Satar A.M., Goher M.E., Napiórkowska-Krzebietke A., Abd El-Monem A.M. 2016. The isotherm and kinetic studies of heavy metals biosorption by non-living cells of Chlorella vulgaris. J. Elem., 21(4): 1263 - 1276, DOI:  10.5601/jelem.2016.21.1.1040


adsorption, green algae, Freundlich, Langmuir, kinetic, cadmium, lead, copper

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