Biochemistry of magnesium
Magnesium is essential for biochemical functions of cells. Since Mg2+ has a relatively low ionic radius in proportion to the size of the nucleus (0.86 versus 1.14 f A for Ca2+), itshows exceptional biochemical activity. Due to its physicochemical properties, intracellular magnesium can bind to the nucleus, ribosomes, cell membranes or macromolecules occurring in the cell’s cytosol. It is indispensable for the nucleus to function as a whole and for the maintenance of physical stability as well as aggregation of rybosomes into polysomes able to initiate protein synthesis. Mg2+ can also act as a cofactor for ribonucleic acid enzymes (ribozymes) capable of specifically recognizing and cleaving the target mRNA. As an essential cofactor in NER, BER, MMR processes, Mg2+ is required for the removal of DNA damage. An activator of over 300 different enzymes, magnesium participates in many metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, Krebs cycle, β-oxidation or ion transport across cell membranes. Mg2+ plays a key role in the regulation of functions of mitochondria, including the control of their volume, composition of ions and ATP production.
Pasternak K., Kocot J., Horecka A. 2010. Biochemistry of magnesium. J.Elem. 15(3): 601-616.
magnesium, DNA repair process, enzyme, metabolic cycle, cellular respiration,