Biofortification of the nutritional value of foods from the grain of Triticum durum Desf. by an agrotechnical method: A scientific review
Żuk-Gołaszewska K., Żerańska A., Krukowska A., Bojarczuk J.
Enrichment of cereal grains is a priority area for research and an effective strategy compared to supplementation and food diversification. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge on the biofortification and nutritional value of food products from spring durum wheat grain, achieved by an agrotechnical method named ‘from field to table’ production. Biofortification refers to the production of safe food fortified with micronutrients and to the introduction of microorganisms that increase the bioretention of nutrients by plants, thus creating a new quality of food products as well as contributing to the protection of soil, perceived as a crucial resource in agricultural production. It is based on our knowledge of the physiology of yielding in conjunction with an increased productivity and higher value, essential in the context of health disorders due to dietary deficiencies. The choice of a durum wheat cultivation method depends on the crop’s habitat requirements, climate, proper selection of a previous crop, nutritional requirements, plant protection and storage. The conventional cultivation system diversifies the content of components, increasing Mn and Cu while decreasing P, K, Ca and Zn concentrations. Cultivation of this species on soil classified as very good wheat complex or good wheat ensures the highest yields characterised by high grain quality. This wheat is tolerant to water stress, although irrigation of spring durum wheat has been shown to improve nitrogen agronomic efficiency and to increase the yield of protein and energy. The recommended amount of nitrogen in plant fertilization is between 80-160 kg ha-1. Durum wheat flour has a higher content of yellow pigments and better qualitative composition of gluten proteins, while its kernels have lighter and thinner hulls. Durum wheat flour absorbs less water during bread baking. Owing to this attribute, pasta from durum wheat is more adhesive to sauces, has compact texture and is more difficult to overcook.
Żuk-Gołaszewska K., Żerańska A., Krukowska A., Bojarczuk J. 2016. Biofortification of the nutritional value of foods from the grain of Triticum durum Desf. by an agrotechnical method: A scientific review. J. Elem., 21(3): 963 - 975, DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2015.20.4.950
agrotechnology, fortification, durum wheat, grain quality, mineral components