Epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of air pollution by heavy metals in an urban area (northern Poland)
Parzych A., Zduńczyk A., Astel A.
The capability of accumulating lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cooper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) by tree lichen species was compared. Samples of lichens were taken in the autumn of 2013, from Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Acer platanoides L., Acer Pseudoplatanus L., Populus sp. trees and other broad-leaved trees growing within the city limits of Słupsk. The sampling stations were located in housing estates, green urban parks, near streets with heavy traffic and close to industrial plants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pollution of the municipal environment of Słupsk with selected heavy metals using for this purpose thalli of three lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoria parietina, and to compare their accumulative properties. The heavy metal content in lichens was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentration of heavy metals was discovered in lichens collected in the city centre, while the lowest concentrations were found in parks and green areas. The largest quantities of Ni and Pb were accumulated by the lichen species H. physodes, most Zn and Fe accumulated in the lichen X. parietina, whereas Mn accumulated in similar amounts in all the tested species. A strong direct proportional relationship between the content of Zn and Fe, Fe and Cu, Zn and Cu in thalli of lichens was revealed. Some similarity between the Pb-Cu and Pb-Fe correlations was found as well as that of Pb-Mn in thalli of P. sulcata and X. parietina, along with a series of statistically significant differences between the examined species of lichen related to pH and the volume of accumulated heavy metals in thalli. The most significant differences in the content of heavy metals in thalli assessed in series of pairwise comparisons including (i) H. physodes vs P. sulcata, (ii) P. sulcata vs X. parietina and (iii) H. physodes vs X. parietina were found for (i') Pb, Cu and Fe, (ii') Ni and (iii') Pb, Ni, Cu and Fe, respectively.
Parzych A., Zduńczyk A., Astel A. 2016. Epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of air pollution by heavy metals in an urban area (northern Poland). J. Elem., 21(3): 781 - 795, DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2016.21.1.861
accumulation, biomonitoring, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina