Assessment of infant exposure to lead and cadmium content in infant formulas

Wydanie: 3 / 2009


  • Winiarska-Mieczan A.

Kategorie: Food science , Medicine and veterinary

DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2009.14.3.16


Infants and little children are the highest risk group as far as the exposition to toxic metals is concerned. Newly born babies do not have effectively functioning regulatory mechanisms and the absorption of mineral elements, including toxic ones, is higher than in older children and adults. Separate, more rigorous requirements have been determined for food products for infant nutrition. Special attention is required in the case of toxic metals, including lead and cadmium, which are regarded as particularly harmful to the organism. The objective of the present work was to establish the content of lead and cadmium in powdered milk used in the nutrition of infants in the first months of their lives. Moreover, on the basis of surveys, the popularity of using milk replacement formulas was determined, as well as factors affecting this situation. All the examined preparations were labelled as “a special nutrition product”. They had been purchased in different groceries in Lublin in October 2007, all before their use-by date. The shares of Pb and Cd were marked in the samples. It was demonstrated that only two preparations did not comply with the recommendations regarding the content of cadmium, while in the other samples the maximum value was not exceeded. It was also noted that the analysed preparations were not safe for babies as far as the content of lead was concerned. At the same time, it was observed that as many as 87% babies were breast-fed, which is a positive phenomenon, whereas 40% women used combined nutrition for their children (breast feeding alternately with powdered milk). The choice of a particular preparation resulted in the first place from the doctor’s recommendations, and next from babies’ preferences and friends’ opinions.


Winiarska-Mieczan A. 2009. Assessment of infant exposure to lead and cadmium content in infant formulas. J. Elem. 14(3): 573-581.

Słowa kluczowe:

child, infant formula, cadmium, lead

Pobierz artykuł
Baza artykułów