The impact of chemical compounds contained in a diet on the development and prevention of urolithiasis
Czerwiec 01, 2020
Styczeń 07, 2021
Zieliński P., Krupińska J., Wróbel G.
Urolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of the genitourinary system. The conditions associated with the development of urolithiasis show a wide variety, among which dietary behaviour is of great importance and is nowadays becoming increasingly important in the development of kidney stones. The aim of this study was to review the literature about the impact of chemical compounds contained in a diet on the development and prevention of urolithiasis. Factors impeding the proper absorption of calcium include phosphates, fatty acids, sulphates, citrates, oxalates, while the factor that stimulates the absorption of calcium in the intestines is the active form of vitamin D3. In this regard, one should consider the amount of calcium, sodium, potassium, animal protein and simple carbohydrates consumed in a diet, as well as dietary habits regarding caffeine and alcohol. Also significant is the fact that a poorly balanced diet may condition hypercalciuria. In the case of excessive consumption of other compounds, such as simple carbohydrates and ethyl alcohol, increased urinary calcium excretion is observed, caused by disturbances in the tubular reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in nephrons. Nowadays, prophylaxis is gaining importance in the light of the growing number of cases of urolithiasis worldwide. A well-designed diet is a crucial element, affecting both the formation of deposits and treatment, hence sound knowledge of the principles of proper nutrition can significantly reduce the risk of the recurrence of renal colic.
The most common cause of urolithiasis are nutritional errors, and the onset of treatment is associated with a change in dietary habits. The general nutritional recommendations for urolithiasis should be adapted to the type of urinary stones deposit and an individual patient’s comorbidities. A tailored approach to combating the disease is required.
Zieliński P., Krupińska J., Wróbel G. 2021. The impact of chemical compounds contained in a diet on the development and prevention of urolithiasis. J. Elem., 26(1): 163 - 179. DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2020.25.4.2026
urolithiasis, chemical factors, nutrition, diet