Assessment of the content of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in food fish is important for the consumer’s health. The maximum acceptable amounts for these heavy metals in fish muscle are defined in the European and world legislation. The objective of the study was to determine the content of Hg, Pb and Cd in the muscles of grass carp, bighead carp, Siberian sturgeon and wels catfish, and to compare the results with the relevant international guidelines. In addition, the potential risk of any toxic effect of these elements on the consumer, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) were analysed. The graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method (GFAAS) was used to evaluate the content Cd and Pb in fish muscles. The total Hg concentration in the same samples was determined by the cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry technique (CVAAS). The Hg content was significantly higher in muscle tissues of bighead carp and Siberian sturgeon than in those of grass carp and wels catfish. The level of Pb was the highest in the muscle tissues of Siberian sturgeon, being lower and comparable in the muscle tissues of grass carp, bighead carp and wels catfish. No significant differences between the fish species in the content of Cd were identified. The content of Hg, Pb and Cd in the muscles of the examined fish species was less than the threshold levels defined in the Commission Regulation (EC) 1881/2006. The EDI, THQ and TTHQ values did not indicate a risk of any toxic effect of these elements on people consuming these fish species.