Nutritional value of raw legumes
J., Styczyńska M., Łoźna K., Aniołowska
Legumes should be considered as an important part of a healthy diet, because of both their nutritional value (high protein and low fat content) and functional properties (Trichopoulou et al. 2014). The functional components include carbohydrates, soluble fiber, vitamins and polyphenols. Epidemiological studies have shown a positive correlation between the consumption of legumes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and certain types of cancer. In the past few years, phenolic compounds have attracted much attention owing to a large variety of biological actions, including anti-inflammatory effects, which they can produce (García-Lafuente et al. 2014). Chronic inflammation is a cause of many serious diseases, including cardiac disorders, allergy, DM 1, Alzheimer's disease. In the anti-inflammatory food pyramid, pulses were placed at the base (Viveky et al. 2013). The aim of this study was to determine the content of amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, macro- and micro-elements in the common legumes. The total protein content varied from 17.9 to 22.5 g 100g-1. The mean content of fat varied from 1.1 to 2.0 g 100g-1 and the soluble sugar content ranged from 4.3 to 7.9 g 100g-1. The dominant amino acids were glutamic and aspartic acids. Methionine and cysteine composed the lowest percentage of all amino acids. Pulses were characterized by the presence of such fatty acids as α-linoleic, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid. The mean content of iron varied from 3.3 to 5.3 g 100g-1. The highest amount of this element was found in small bean, which was also characterized by the highest copper content. The highest amounts of zinc, calcium and magnesium were contained in dark red kidney bean. The analyzed pulses were distinguishd by high nutritive value. The identifed amino acids profile indicates sufficient quantity of lysine and shortage of sulphuric acids. The pulses also had a beneficial composition of fatty acids. The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio was between 1:2 and 4:1.
Miedzianka J., Styczyńska M., Łoźna K., Aniołowska M., Biernat J. 2017. Nutritional value of raw legumes. J. Elem., 22(2): 643 - 652. DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2016.21.2.1042
legumes, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, trace elements